Vertical of power
- While the notion of a “vertical of power” (vertikal’ vlasti) within the Russian state dates to 1993, when Boris Yeltsin used it to describe an attempt to streamline governance in the Russian Federation, the concept became synonymous with the administration of Vladimir Putin. From 2000 to 2005, Putin set about implementing his plans to reduce the power of the federal subjects vis-à-vis the central government, especially with the gubernatorial electoral reforms of 2004-2005, which allowed him to create a “single chain of command” and expand the power of the executive branch of the government. In addition to the depletion of asymmetrical federalism, Putin also sought to reign in the press and eliminate the oligarchs as a political force in the country. Through the encouragement of an alliance between the so-called siloviki> and corporate interests, he was able to create synergy between Russia’s economic and political elites. Putin framed his neo-authoritarian agenda as an attempt to purge Russia of the chaos (bespredel) of the 1990s, when mafia, separatists, and other antistate interests sapped Russia of its power and prestige around the world. The dramatic resurgence of the state under Putin, however, has been viewed as acutely detrimental to the country’s fledgling civil society. Since assuming the presidency, Dmitry Medvyedev has signaled his intent to hew the sharper edges of the vertical of power.
Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation. Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Vertical farming — is a proposal to perform agriculture in urban high rises. These building have been called farmscrapers. [ [http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/4/23/104245/760#comment5 Urbanism and the environment | Gristmill: The environmental news blog |… … Wikipedia
Power semiconductor device — Power semiconductor devices are semiconductor devices used as switches or rectifiers in power electronic circuits (switch mode power supplies for example). They are also called power devices or when used in integrated circuits, called power… … Wikipedia
Power MOSFET — A Power MOSFET is a specific type of Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) designed to handle large power. Compared to the other power semiconductor devices (IGBT, Thyristor...), its main advantages are high commutation speed … Wikipedia
Vertical jump — A vertical jump or vertical leap is the act of raising one s center of gravity higher in the vertical plane solely with the use of one s own muscles; it is a measure of how high an individual or athlete can elevate off the ground (jump) from a… … Wikipedia
Vertical Farming — Designbeispiele für Farmscrapers Vertikale Landwirtschaft oder Vertical Farming (engl.) ist ein Begriff der Zukunftstechnologie, welche eine tragfähige Landwirtschaft und Massenproduktion pflanzlicher und tierischer Erzeugnisse im Ballungsgebiet… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Vertical integration — In microeconomics and management, the term vertical integration describes a style of management control. Vertically integrated companies are united through a hierarchy and share a common owner. Usually each member of the hierarchy produces a… … Wikipedia
Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser — The vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL; [v ɪxl] ) is a type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the top surface, contrary to conventional edge emitting semiconductor lasers (also in plane lasers)… … Wikipedia
Vertical boiler — Detail of vertical boiler and associated steam engine in a working model steam launch … Wikipedia
Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser — A vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) is a small semiconductor laser similar to a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VECSELs are used primarily as near infrared devices in laser cooling and spectroscopy, but have … Wikipedia
vertical — 1 adjective 1 pointing straight up and down in a line and forming an angle of 90 degrees with the ground or with another straight line: a vertical line | blue and green vertical stripes | a sheer, vertical cliff 2 having a structure in which… … Longman dictionary of contemporary English